Principle : X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of the same order of magnitude as the distances between atoms in the material (0.01 – 10 nanometers). during their interaction with the material, they will be disseminated by the atoms they encounter. these scattered x-rays will interfere with each other. and if the atoms are ordered or positioned at regular intervals such as in the crystals, the interference will be constructive in certain directions and destructive in others. this is the phenomenon of diffraction.
the sample crystallized can be analyzed by x-ray diffraction and each crystalline phase corresponds to a characteristic set of peaks of diffraction still called diffractogramme. this unique signature allows the identification of different phases present in the same sample. the diffractogramme obtained represents the intensity of the radiation to be diffracted according to the angles of diffraction. the position of the lines depends on the dimensions of the unit cell, while the intensity depends on the arrangement of the atoms.